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Armed Forces Edition Books

Armed Forces Edition Books: A Reenactor’s Perspective and Analysis

One of things I like to do at reenactments is read. Once, after digging a slit trench with a fellow reenactor, I dug out a book I had on 1940s science from my pack and began to read it. We soon broke out into a wonderful discussion on the merits of of what-was-then 1940s science and technology. Fortunately, the Germans attacked way down at the other end of the line.

For the bibliophile reenactor there was not many options in terms of reading material.
You can use period printed books such as Purple Heart Valley, Guadalcanal Diary, or any other WW2 era book. However, you run the risk of damaging these books. Indeed, the paper they are made with is of a lighter material (due to a War Production Board ruling in 1944) and more prone to tearing.

WW2 Printed Books
WW2 Printed Books. BAD do not take into the field!

Original magazines such as Yank or Saturday Evening Post are also an option. Again, same problem. These were printed on cheap and non-durable newsprint. Therefore, they are not designed to last and taking them out in the field is asking for trouble though soldiers at the time did use it for a variety of shall-we-say “hygiene solutions”. Reenactors have access to more modern cleanliness solutions.

1944-1945: Yank and Newsweek
1944-1945: Yank and Newsweek. BAD do not take into the field

For the soldier who had access to travel material or likes to sing there are city guides and army song books. Again same problem. All original, all cheaply printed, all designed not to last.

WW2 Soldiers City Guide Florence
WW2 Soldiers City Guide Florence. BAD to take into the field! GOOD to take on leave to Florence!

WW2 Army Song Book
WW2 Army Song Book. BAD, singing in the field attracts Germans

Alternatively, you could brush up on your language skills. Though you run into the same problem. Cheap books, not durable, and very limited copies produced compared to others.

WW2 Language Books
WW2 Language books:
Top-Left to bottom-right-
Chinese, Japanese, Italian, Persian, French, German

Finally, one could read your copy of FM 21-100 for the dozenths time. Though, this manual was printed by the millions and there enough copies around that you might actually be able to take this into the field, destroy it, and be able to find another one cheaply.

FM 21-100
Yay! FM 21-100 great late night reading material…

However, there are some reenactors who do want to take out original copies to trash in the mud, dirt, and rain. Indeed, some individuals have reproduced newspapers and magazines but those are very costly to print especially in small numbers.

When I attend a reenactment I bring a copy of of FM 21-100 and some “trashed” magazines. These are magazines that have covers ripped off, pages missing, and are in a general state of disrepair. In other words, perfect for getting destroyed. I rationalize the possibility of destroying these artifacts of history as:

“They made millions of these magazines and enough are still around that preserving a WW2 magazine with a defect makes no sense when others can still be bought cheaply and in much better condition”

Trashed WW2 Mags
Trashed WW2 Magazines that I take into the field. Some have pages ripped out, covers missing, or are generally defective in someway that warrants risking destruction in the field.

Currently, there exists an option to buy inexpensive Armed Forces Edition/Armed Services Edition reproduction books to take out in the field. Much has been written about the history of these “pocket-sized books”(see links below) so I won’t dive too much into the history of the books.
NPR Story: By the Books: The Pocket-Size Editions that Kept Soldiers Reading
Book: When Books Went to War: The Stories that Helped Us Win World War II
Atlantic Monthly Article: Publishers Gave Away 122,951,031 Books During World War II
The Art of Manliness has a historical review of the books
Wikipedia has an article dedicated to it
From the Library of Congress Books in Action: The Armed Services Edition
Virginia University Special Collections Exhibit:  Books go to War
Listing of Armed Forces Edition Book Titles
Listing of Armed Forces Edition Book Authors
Related Publications of Interest including collectors guides
Saturday Evening Post, June 1945: “What the GI Reads”

Armed Services Edition
Armed Services Edition Examples

The current option that blends an economical advantage with historical accuracy are the books produced by The Legacy Project. The Legacy project is a non-profit that seeks to distribute stylized-Armed Forces Edition books to soldiers stationed overseas. Obtaining the books can be a bit tricky. I would suggest three places:
Amazon
Ebay
Shop Goodwill

I was able to find my copy: Man in the Arena on Amazon. The books prices can range anywhere between 8-14 dollars (without shipping). Compared to trashing a mint condition original book the price is worth it. The book looks like this:

 Legacy Project Armed Services Edition Book: Man in the Arena
Front Cover
Legacy Project Armed Services Edition Book: Man in the Arena
 Legacy Project Armed Services Edition Book: Man in the Arena
Inside Cover
Legacy Project Armed Services Edition Book: Man in the Arena
 Legacy Project Armed Services Edition Book: Man in the Arena
Preface
Legacy Project Armed Services Edition Book: Man in the Arena

Similarities between Original Armed Forces Edition and Legacy Project’s Armed Forces Edition
1. Hip-sized style still the same
2. Cheap pulp paper
3. Back of the book is similar
4. Similar in a side-by-side comparison
Note: The War Time Production Board limited the the margin of books to conserve materials and space. Books produced by the Legacy product do not need to adhere to such rulings and hence there books are longer and thinner.

Armed Forces Edition and Legacy Project Comparison
Front of Book
Armed Forces Edition and Legacy Project Comparison

Armed Forces Edition and Legacy Project Comparison
Back of Books
Armed Forces Edition and Legacy Project Comparison

Armed Forces Edition and Legacy Project Comparison
Side-by-side
Armed Forces Edition and Legacy Project Comparison

Differences between Original Armed Forces Edition Books and Legacy Project’s Books

Note: The reason, I would guess, has more to do with modern printing costs and technology.
1. The Legacy Project Armed Forces edition books have a glossy cover. The original ones do not.
2. The size of the Legacy Project’s books are not 100% accurate when compared to originals.
3. Included in the Legacy Project’s books are facets of modern publishing such as Web address, modern printing dates, and modern addresses.
4. Originals had staples that kept the binding together. Staples were along the binding and either included the the books cover in the staple punch OR skipped the cover and started at the first interior page. The books cover would then be glued. The Legacy Project’s books lack the staple and it appears that the binding is glue only.
5. Original books included on the first interior page an outline of the books title in dotted, solid, or double-solid line.
6. Original books have a listing of other Armed Forces Editions on the back interior page.
7. Original books have an Armed Forces Edition statement on the back of the front cover.

Armed Forces Edition and Legacy Project Comparison
First Interior Page
Armed Forces Edition and Legacy Project Comparison. Note the Armed Forces Edition statement on the top book.

Armed Forces Edition and Legacy Project Comparison
Back Interior Page
Armed Forces Edition and Legacy Project Comparison. Note the listing of other Armed Forces Edition books.

As a reenactor I value historical accuracy but realize that we are not living in the past and must strike a balance between what is practical and what is ideal. The Legacy Project’s Armed Forces Editions look very good close-up and are within the unofficial reenactor rule of 3-feet. Though there are some things that can be done to help “de-farb” the book. More on that later.

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Lesson Plan World History II SOL 9ac

Lesson Plans World History II SOL:Lesson Plan World History II SOL 9ac Industrial Revolution Causes and Outcomes

Standard WH II:

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the effects of the Industrial Revolution
during the nineteenth century by

Objectives

SOL a) citing scientific, technological, and industrial developments and explaining how they
brought about urbanization and social and environmental changes;
SOL bc) describing the evolution of the nature of work and the labor force, including its
effects on families, the status of women and children, the slave trade, and the labor
union movement;

Lesson Plans
Introduction: A Bell-ringer activity
Notes: Students copy-down and discuss teacher generated notes
Activities: Students complete various in class activities to support learning including video analysis, maps, charts, diagrams, graphic organizers, worksheets, text-book questions, group discussion, KWL Charts etc.
Assessment: Informal, Formal, Exit-Questions, Teacher Questioning. Quizzes, Tests, Projects
Essential Knowledge
Industrial Revolution
• Originated in England because of its natural resources
(e.g., coal, iron ore) and the invention and improvement of
the steam engine
• Spread to Europe and the United States
• Role of cotton textile, iron, and steel industries
• Relationship to the British Enclosure Movement
• Rise of the factory system and demise of cottage industries
• Rising economic powers that wanted to control raw materials and markets throughout the world
Technological advances that produced the Industrial Revolution
• Spinning jenny: James Hargreaves
• Steam engine: James Watt
• Cotton gin: Eli Whitney
• Process for making steel: Henry Bessemer
Advancements in science and medicine
• Development of smallpox vaccination: Edward Jenner
• Discovery of bacteria: Louis Pasteur
Impacts of the Industrial Revolution on industrialized countries
• Population increase
• Increased standards of living for many but not all
• Improved transportation
• Urbanization
• Environmental pollution
• Increased education
• Dissatisfaction of working class with working conditions
• Growth of the middle class

SOL 9c
The nature of work in the factory system
• Family-based cottage industries displaced by the factory system
• Harsh working conditions with men competing with women and children for wages
• Child labor that kept costs of production low and profits high
• Owners of mines and factories who exercised considerable control over the lives of their laborers
Impact of the Industrial Revolution on slavery
• The cotton gin increased demand for slave labor on American plantations.
• The United States and Britain outlawed the slave trade and then slavery.
Social effects of the Industrial Revolution
• Women and children entering the workplace as cheap labor
• Introduction of reforms to end child labor
• Expansion of education
• Women’s increased demands for suffrage The rise of labor unions
• Encouraged worker-organized strikes to demand increased wages and improved
working conditions
• Lobbied for laws to improve the lives of workers, including women and children
• Wanted workers’ rights and collective bargaining between labor and management

Activities That Support Lesson Plans

Industrial Revolution Teacher Viewing Guide

Inventor Biographies: Short biographies for use with chart below. I normally have students give a brief presentation on their assigned inventor
Inventor Biography Chart Analysis:Students complete the chart based off of the presentations
Child Workers :Excerpts on Child Workers
Children in Factories Source Readings : Source readings on children working in factories
Industrial Revolution in Political Cartoons Analysis :Political Cartoons of the Industrial Revolution
Hard Times Charles Dickens :Reading analysis excerpt from Charles Dickens’ book Hard Times.
Life During the Industrial Revolution Teacher Video Guide :Video Teacher Guide for use with video below
Industrial Revolution Impacts and Results Homework : Homework assignment from textbook on outcomes of IR
Life in Industrial Revolution Video Quiz : Short video for video below
Pride and Prejudice Analysis: Analysis excerpts of Pride and Prejudice

United Learning Video: Life During the Industrial Revolution World History SOL 9a

 

 

Note: The above activities are best used with the Virginia Prentice Hall World History: The Modern Era textbook.

 

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Lesson Plans World History II SOL 8d

Lesson Plans World History II SOL 8d: German Unification

Standard WH II: The student will demonstrate knowledge of political and philosophical developments in Europe during the nineteenth century by

Objectives; explaining events related to the unification of Germany and the role of Bismarck.
Lesson Plans
Introduction: A Bell-ringer activity
Notes: Students copy-down and discuss teacher generated notes
Activities: Students complete various in class activities to support learning including video analysis, maps, charts, diagrams, graphic organizers, worksheets, text-book questions, group discussion, KWL Charts etc.
Assessment: Informal, Formal, Exit-Questions, Teacher Questioning. Quizzes, Tests, Projects
Essential Knowledge:

Unification of Germany
• Otto von Bismarck led Prussia in the unification of Germany through war
and by appealing to nationalist feelings.
• Bismarck’s actions were seen as an example of Realpolitik, which justifies all means to achieve and hold power.
• The Franco-Prussian War led to the creation of the German state.

Activities That Support Lesson Plans

Bismarck: Opposing Historical Views: Handout that presents two views on Bismarck.
German Unification Maps: The map activity I use in class may be purchased from the TPT History Fanatics Store.

Blood and Iron Video:

Note: The above activities are best used with the Virginia Prentice Hall World History: The Modern Era textbook.

 

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Lesson Plans World History II SOL 8c

Lesson Plans World History II SOL 8c: Italian Unification

Standard WH II: The student will demonstrate knowledge of political and philosophical developments in Europe during the nineteenth century by:

Objectives: explaining events related to the unification of Italy and the role of Italian nationalists
Lesson Plans
Introduction: A Bell-ringer activity
Notes: Students copy-down and discuss teacher generated notes
Activities: Students complete various in class activities to support learning including video analysis, maps, charts, diagrams, graphic organizers, worksheets, text-book questions, group discussion, KWL Charts etc.
Assessment: Informal, Formal, Exit-Questions, Teacher Questioning. Quizzes, Tests, Projects
Essential Knowledge:
Unification of Italy
• Count Cavour unified Northern Italy.
• Giuseppe Garibaldi joined southern Italy to northern Italy.
• The Papal States (including Rome) became the last to join Italy.

Activities That Support Lesson Plans

Premium Lesson Plan: Garibaldi Nationalism Speech: A worksheet where students analyze a speech. Includes teacher answers.
Unification of Italy A Play :Simulation of Italian Unification in a theatrical/play format.

Note: The above activities are best used with the Virginia Prentice Hall World History: The Modern Era textbook.

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Lesson Plans World History II SOL 8b

Lesson Plans World History II SOL 8b: Revolutions of 1848

Standard WH II:The student will demonstrate knowledge of political and philosophical developments in Europe during the nineteenth century by
Objectives
b) describing unsuccessful revolutions on the continent and political reform in the United Kingdom
Lesson Plans
Introduction: A Bell-ringer activity
Notes: Students copy-down and discuss teacher generated notes
Activities: Students complete various in class activities to support learning including video analysis, maps, charts, diagrams, graphic organizers, worksheets, text-book questions, group discussion, KWL Charts etc.
Assessment: Informal, Formal, Exit-Questions, Teacher Questioning. Quizzes, Tests, Projects
Essential Knowledge:
-National pride, economic competition, and democratic ideals stimulated the growth of nationalism.
-The terms of the Congress of Vienna led to widespread discontent in Europe, especially in Italy and the German
states. Unsuccessful revolutions of 1848 increased nationalistic tensions.
-In contrast to continental Europe, the United Kingdom expanded political rights through legislative means and
made slavery illegal in the British Empire.

Activities That Support Lesson Plans

Premium Lesson Plans: 1848 Revolutions and UK Reform Short and Long activities: Includes two different activities. A long chart analysis in which students examine the causes of nine different revolutions and a short except activity where students compare six different revolutions. Students then answer four questions. Includes teacher answers. If using the long activity you may wish to divide students up and allow students to present their answers to the class OR make it a learning station-style activity where students rotate to different stations.

Les Miserables Reading : brief excerpt from the book Les Miserables

Note: The above activities are best used with the Virginia Prentice Hall World History: The Modern Era textbook.

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Lesson Plans World History II SOL 7abcd

Lesson Plans World History II SOL 7abcd: Latin-American Revolutionaries and the Monroe Doctrine

Standard WH II: The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Latin American revolutions of the nineteenth century by

Objectives:
a) describing the colonial system as it existed by 1800.
b) identifying the impact of the American and French Revolutions on Latin America.
c) explaining the contributions of Toussaint L’Ouverture and Simón Bolivar.
d) assessing the impact of the Monroe Doctrine.

Lesson Plans
Introduction: A Bell-ringer activity
Notes: Students copy-down and discuss teacher generated notes
Activities: Students complete various in class activities to support learning including video analysis, maps, charts, diagrams, graphic organizers, worksheets, text-book questions, group discussion, KWL Charts etc.
Assessment: Informal, Formal, Exit-Questions, Teacher Questioning. Quizzes, Tests, Projects
Essential Knowledge:
SOL 7a
Characteristics of the colonial system
• Colonial governments mirrored the home governments.
• Catholicism had a strong influence on the development of the colonies.
• A major element of the economy was the mining of precious metals for export.
• Major cities were established as outposts of colonial authority.
– Havana   – Mexico City   – Lima    – São Paulo    – Buenos Aires
Rigid class structure
• Viceroys / colonial officers
• Creoles
• Mestizos

SOL 7b:
Influence of the American and French Revolutions on Latin America
• Slaves in Haiti rebelled, abolished slavery, and won independence.
• Father Miguel Hidalgo started the Mexican independence movement.
• French, Spanish, and Portuguese colonies gained independence.
Selected countries that gained independence during the 1800s
• Mexico      • Haiti          • Colombia       • Venezuela      • Brazil

SOL 7c
Contributions of Toussaint L’Ouverture
• Former slave who led Haitian rebellion against French
• Defeated the armies of three foreign powers: Spain, France, and Britain
Contributions of Simón Bolivar
• Native resident who led revolutionary efforts
• Liberated the northern areas of Latin America

SOL 7d
Impact of the Monroe Doctrine
• The Monroe Doctrine was issued by President James Monroe in 1823.
• Latin American nations were acknowledged to be independent.
• The United States would regard as a threat to its own peace and safety any attempt by European powers to impose their system on any independent state in the Western Hemisphere.

   Activities That Support Lesson Plans

Father Hidalgo Reading: Primary Source Reading
Toussaint LOuverture Biography: A handout with a brief bio

Short Biographies: For use with chart below
Biography Analysis Chart: Biography Chart
Latin American Independence Map with Cities: Map activity

Latin-American textbook and Primary Source readings: Activity where students read textbook sections on independence leaders and complete chart. Students also read an excerpt from Bolivar’s Address to the Congress of Venezuela (Angosture) in 1819. Students also address questions from the video below.
Note: For a copy of his famous address see here:
http://homepages.udayton.edu/~santamjc/angosturatxt.html

 

PBS put out a fantastic video on Toussaint in 2009: Egalite for All-Toussaint Louverture and the Haitian Revolution
See here for the PBS Site:   http://video.pbs.org/video/2110323964/
This it the viewing guide I use for the video: Viewing Guide Egalite For All

 

Note: The above activities are best used with the Virginia Prentice Hall World History: The Modern Era textbook.

 

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Lesson Plans World History II SOL 8a

Lesson Plans World History II SOL 8a: Napoleon and the Congress of Vienna

Standard WH II SOL8a:
The student will demonstrate knowledge of political and philosophical developments in Europe during the nineteenth century by

Learning Intentions/Objectives
SOL 8a) assessing the impact of Napoleon and the Congress of Vienna, including changes in political boundaries in Europe after 1815.

Lesson Plans
Introduction: A Bell-ringer activity
Notes: Students copy-down and discuss teacher generated notes
Activities: Students complete various in class activities to support learning including video analysis, maps, charts, diagrams, graphic organizers, worksheets, text-book questions, group discussion, KWL Charts etc.
Assessment: Informal, Formal, Exit-Questions, Teacher Questioning. Quizzes, Tests, Projects

Essential Knowledge:
Legacy of Napoleon
• Unsuccessful attempt to unify Europe under French domination
• Napoleonic Code
• Awakening of feelings of national pride and growth of nationalism
Legacy of the Congress of Vienna
• “Balance of power” doctrine
• Restoration of monarchies
• New political map of Europe
• New political philosophies (liberalism, conservatism)

Activities That Support Lesson Plans

Premium Lesson Plan: Congress of Vienna : Before and After maps

Napoleon Changes in France
: Focus on Napoleonic Code

Rise of Napoleon

Rise and Fall of Napoleon Chart

Congress-of-Vienna Reading Activity

Simulation: Congress of Vienna Type 2

Simulation: The Congress of Vienna Type 1

 Video below is to be used with the Viewing Guide above:
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LvoZ8xv_ZgM

Napoleon at Waterloo Board Game:
Napoleon at Waterloo Rules

NAW: Right Map
NAW: Right Map

NAW: Left Map
NAW: Left Map

Napoleon at Waterloo Markers
Napoleon at Waterloo Markers

Note: The above activities are best used with the Virginia Prentice Hall World History: The Modern Era textbook.

 

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Lesson Plans World History II SOL 6f

Lesson Plans World History II SOL 6f: Effects of Enlightenment on Art, Music, Literature

Standard WH II:
The student will demonstrate knowledge of scientific, political, economic, and religious changes during the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries by

Objectives
SOL 6f: describing the expansion of the arts, philosophy, literature, and new technology.

Lesson Plans
Introduction: A Bell-ringer activity
Notes: Students copy-down and discuss teacher generated notes
Activities: Students complete various in class activities to support learning including video analysis, maps, charts, diagrams, graphic organizers, worksheets, text-book questions, group discussion, KWL Charts etc.
Assessment: Informal, Formal, Exit-Questions, Teacher Questioning. Quizzes, Tests, Projects

Essential Knowledge:
Representative composers, artists, philosophers, and writers
• Johann Sebastian Bach: Baroque composer
• Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Classical composer
• Voltaire: Philosopher
• Miguel de Cervantes: Novelist
• Eugène Delacroix: Painter (transition to the Romantic School of the nineteenth century)
New schools of art and forms of literature
• Painting depicted classical subjects, public events, natural scenes, and living people (portraits).
• New forms of literature evolved, such as the novel (e.g., Cervantes’ Don Quixote).
Technologies
• All-weather roads improved year round transport and trade.
• New designs in farm tools increased productivity (agricultural revolution).
• Improvements in ship design lowered the cost of transport.

Activities That Support Lesson Plans

Don Quixote Textbook Reading Questions

PowerPoint Don Quixote Video Questions
Discovery Education Don Quixote Teacher Video Viewing Guide

Powerpoint Romantic Era Art Analysis

Romantic Era Trading Cards Instructions
Romantic Era Trading Card Pictures

The Don Quixote video from United Learning/Discovery Education is to be used with the video guide and questions above


Note: The above activities are best used with the Virginia Prentice Hall World History: The Modern Era textbook.

 

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Lesson Plans World History II SOL 6e

Lesson Plans World History II SOL 6e: French Revolution and Reign of Terror

Standard WH II:
The student will demonstrate knowledge of scientific, political, economic, and religious changes during the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries by

Objectives
SOL 6e: describing the French Revolution.
Lesson Plans
Introduction: A Bell-ringer activity
Notes: Students copy-down and discuss teacher generated notes
Activities: Students complete various in class activities to support learning including video analysis, maps, charts, diagrams, graphic organizers, worksheets, text-book questions, group discussion, KWL Charts etc.
Assessment: Informal, Formal, Exit-Questions, Teacher Questioning. Quizzes, Tests, Projects

Essential Knowledge:
Causes of the French Revolution
• Influence of Enlightenment ideas
• Influence of the American Revolution
Events of the French Revolution
• Storming of the Bastille
• Reign of Terror
Outcomes of the French Revolution
• End of the absolute monarchy of Louis XVI
• Rise of Napoleon

Activities That Support Lesson Plans

PowerPoint:Causes of the French Revolution Document Analysis

French Revolution Documents

Note: Use the powerpoint with the above French Revolution Documents

Cause of French Revolution Review

Declaration of the Rights of Man Reading


Estates General Analysis

History Channel: French Revolution Viewing Guide History Channel
Note 1: The above 2005 History Channel documentary runs about 90minutes and is best used with the French Revolution Documentary
Note 2: If you decide to use the history channel documentary take note of the following approximate scene marks and consider editing them out with your favorite video editor or blocking the screen:
–Sex-life of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette: 16:30-19:00 mark
–Heads of Louis Guards: 38:40-39:00 mark
–Attack on political prisoners: 54:00-55:05 mark
–Blood oozing out from Marie Antoinette’s death: 1:09:40-1:10:00 mark
–Generic blood shot: 1:12:20-1:12:30 mark
–Blood dripping: 1:22:00-1:22:30 mark
–Robespierre suicide scene 1:26:30-1:27:00 mark

Another set of French Revolution videos are from United Learning. The video is much shorter running about30minutes or15minutes for each part.

French Revolution Part 1 Blackline Masters

French Revolution Part 1 Teacher Guide

French Revolution Part 2 Blackline Masters

French Revolution Part 2 Viewing Guide

French Revolution Part 1: Video

French Revolution Part 2 Video

You might also consider these support documents which are used in Britain:
Causes of the French Revolution

Execution of the King and Queen

Political Cartoon Analysis: Causes of the French Revolution

Flowchart of French Revolution

France in 1795: The Directory

French Revolution Begins

Louis XVI Reign of Terror

Tennis Court Oath Analysis 

King on Trial

Note: The above activities are best used with the Virginia Prentice Hall World History: The Modern Era textbook.

 

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Lesson Plans World History II SOL 6d

Lesson Plans World History II SOL 6d: The Enlightenment

Standard WH II:
The student will demonstrate knowledge of scientific, political, economic, and religious changes during the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries by

Objectives
SOL 6d: explaining the political, religious, and social ideas of the Enlightenment and the ways in which they influenced the founders of the United States.

Lesson Plans
Introduction: A Bell-ringer activity
Notes: Students copy-down and discuss teacher generated notes
Activities: Students complete various in class activities to support learning including video analysis, maps, charts, diagrams, graphic organizers, worksheets, text-book questions, group discussion, KWL Charts etc.
Assessment: Informal, Formal, Exit-Questions, Teacher Questioning. Quizzes, Tests, Projects

Essential Knowledge:
The Enlightenment
• Applied reason to the human world, as well as to the rest of the natural world
• Stimulated religious tolerance
• Fueled democratic revolutions around the world Enlightenment thinkers and their ideas
• Thomas Hobbes’ Leviathan: Humans exist in a primitive “state of nature” and consent to government for self-protection.
• John Locke’s Two Treatises on Government: People are sovereign and consent to government for protection of natural rights to life, liberty, and property.
• Montesquieu’s The Spirit of Laws: The best form of government includes a separation of powers.
• Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s The Social Contract: Government is a contract between rulers and the people.
• Voltaire: Religious toleration should triumph over religious fanaticism; separation of church and state.
Influence of the Enlightenment
• Political philosophies of the Enlightenment fueled revolution in the Americas and France.
• Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence incorporated Enlightenment ideas.
• The Constitution of the United States of America and Bill of Rights incorporated Enlightenment ideas.

Activities That Support Lesson Plans

Enlightenment Primary Source Excerpts Packet

Enlightenment Primary Source Documents

The Enlightenment: A Socratic Seminar

Natural Rights Philosophers Biography and Document Analysis
Powerpoint Enlightenment Biography and Document Analysis Questions
Note: This document analysis activity is best used with a set of teacher notes/powerpoint questions and the Primary Source Document link above.

Natural Rights Philosophers Packet

Note: The above activities are best used with the Virginia Prentice Hall World History: The Modern Era textbook.

 

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