Notes on Depression and Carnival Glass for the World War Two Reenactor
Cut Glass (1880-mid 1910s)
Is produced by hand-cutting glass. Cut glass used to contain heavy amounts of lead and to get the right designs glass-makers would add crystal or “flint” to it. Cut glass is used primarily for tableware and come in many styles. Most glassware was signed with the name of the producer, etched into the glass. Reproductions of cut-glass tend to have signatures embossed.
Carnival Glass (1900s-1930)
Carnival Glass is pressed glassware produced in the 1900s-1930. The glass came in many colors including brights (like red, green, blue, purple etc.) and pastel colors (like clear, white, smoke, lavender, and opalescent). The pastel colors have less of a finish. Red is the most highly collectable color as it required fair amounts of gold oxides to produce it. Marigold is the most widely available color. When the depression hit and glass styles changed producers of carnival glass gave it away to…carnivals as prizes.
It was sprayed with a metallic finish that made it look oily in nature. Five companies produced the majority of it in the US. 1. Fenton Art Glass Co. of Williamstown WV 2. Imperial Glass Corporation of Bellaire, OH 3. Millersburg Glass Company of Millersburg, OH 4. Northwood Glass Company of Wheeling, WV 5. Dugan Glass Company of Indiana, PA
Depression Glass (1920s-1930s extending to 1970s):
Cheaply produced colored glassware as automation and industrialization finally caught-up to glassmaking. This glassware was marketed for middle-income and working-class Americans. This glassware came with purchases from stores or mail-order catalogs. Glassware was of any kind including bowls, shakers, dishes (all kinds), creamers, sugars, vases, jars, pitchers, measuring cups etc. Pink is the most common glass color, followed by Green and Amber. The rarer Depression glass colors are red, black, colbalt blue, and yellow. The rarest types of Depression Glass are the ones that incorporate glass bases for citrus juices (reamers).
Fiestaware (1936 to 1970)
Fiestaware is brightly colored pottery. It was produced from 1936 to 1973. It was re-started in 1986. Collectors seek the original colors: Red, Yellow, Cobalt, Light-Green, Ivory, Turquoise. Fiesta Red was pulled from the market in 1943 as it used uranium to help create its color and the uranium was needed for the war effort. Chartreuse(gray and rose colored) was added as a color scheme in the 1950s and earthy tones arrived by the 1970s. The rarest color is medium -green.
Cambridge Glass Company of Cambridge, OH: Produced glass from the early 1900s-1950s. Focused mostly on crystal or cut glass. Can find designs of stars, swirls, squares etc. Produced mostly bowls, plates, tumblers, and cocktail glasses. Most collectable of Cambridge Glass are the Square Series produced shortly before it went out of businesses. Would eventually be bought by Imperial Glass.
Imperial Glass: This company began reproducing Carnival glass in the 1960s using some of the original molds, however the difference between period-correct carnival glass and Imperial Glass Reproductions is that the new glass is marked IG at the bottom.
Fenton Glass: Produced Carnival and then Depression glass. Before 1970 most Fenton glass had a sticker. If no sticker look for an absence of the pontil mark (typically seen as a dimple, chipped-looking section, or lumpy bump that indicates the punty rod was detached from the glass as it was cooling). Fenton Glass used a different kind punty rod that left clean breaks. After 1970, Fenton glass will mark the piece of an “F” or “Fenton” somewhere on the item See: http://www.ehow.com/how_7330459_authenticate-fenton-glass.html http://entertainmentguide.local.com/detect-fake-fenton-glassware-8067.html
Heisey Glass (1860s-1957): Produced Art Glass, Cut-Glass and Carnival Glass. Symbol is an “H” inside a diamond.
Libbey Glass: Produced all kinds of glassware but not much of Carnival or Depression. Glass marked with the word “Libbey”
Westmoreland Glass (1890-1985): Produced some carnival and depression but mainly milk glass. Early Westermoreland marks were a “W” within what appears to be an upside-down lampshade. The intertwined “W” and “G” was not developed until 1949. In 1983, all Westmoreland glass was marked “Westmoreland.”
Anchor-Hocking and Fire King: Jeannette Glass Company Liberty Works MacBeth-Evans Glass Compnay US Glass Company Hazel Atlas Company Indiana Glass Company Fostoria Glass Company Federal Glass Company Paden City Glass Company McKee Glass Company New Martinsville L.E. Smith Company Lancaster Glass Company US Company (?) Belmont Tumbler Company Dell Glass Diamond Glass-ware Company Homer-Laughlin China Company-Fiesta Ware
Sources: -Florence, Gene.1999. The Pocket Guide to Depression Glass and More: 1920s-1960s. 11th Ed. Collector Books. -Good source that puts pictures with the different pattern types. Pickvet, Mark. 1996. Collecting Glassware. Alliance Publishers. -General overview of glass history, glass styles, glass companies.
Below is a listing of WW2 reproduction currency of Russia, The Netherlands, France, Germany, Italy, and Japan. The files are all .pdf and may be printed off and used at reenactments.
Some WW2 reproduction currency files below have two files, a front and a back. They are designed to be printed on either a two-sided copier or printed once and then fed back into the printer the opposite direction so the sides line up.
Others have only a single side. These were also designed to be flipped and fed back into the printer.
A selection of WW2 American Red Cross Recipes for the World War Two Reenactor.
“Red Cross records indicate the organization purchased enough flour between 1939 and 1946 to make 1.6 billion doughnuts. Red Cross women were serving doughnuts at the rate of 400 per minute during the years 1944-1946
Red Cross Doughnuts
1.5 cups of sifted flour 1/4 tsp. baking soda 1/4 tsp. salt 1/4 tsp. butter or substitute, melted 1/4 tsp. ginger 1/4 cup molasses 1/4 cup sour milk (buttermilk) 1 egg, well beaten
Combine half of the flour with the soda, salt and ginger. Combine egg, molasses, sour milk, and melted butter or substitute. Blend with flour mixture and stir until thoroughly mixed and smooth. Add remaining flour to make dough of sufficient body to be rolled. Roll on floured board, to thickness of 1/4inch. Cut with doughnut cutter. Fry in deep hot fat (360 degrees) until lightly browned, about 2 to 3 minutes. Drain on brown paper.”
Shipping the WW2 American Red Cross Recipes such as in a package required following special guidelines.
“Anyone hoping to send a package overseas was advised to mail early–anytime from Sept 15 through Oct 15. The post office listed a series of guide lines for those mailing packages
‘…The weight limit is 5 pounds. Parcels may not be more than 15inches in length and 36inches in length and girth combined.’ ” Later on, a gift container was manufactured (sorry no picture) it measured 10 by 6 by 4 inches. (119)
“We searched for small compact items that packed well and could survive being shipped thousands of miles. We collected stationary, pencils, air mail stamps, paperback books, Western and detective magazines, canned foods, candy bars, chewing gum, fruit flavored powdered drinks, dried packaged fruit such as raisins, dates and prunes, hometown newspapers, Readers Digests, playing cards, heavy socks, and of course snap shots of home folks were especially welcome” (120)
“Packing Cookies took special care. Even though cookies were wrapped and rewrapped in layers of shredded waxed paper or tissue, and then tucked inside tin boxes, they still often arrived in bits and pieces. Not many complained, though. Instead they shared the contents of their Christmas boxes with buddies not so fortunate” (121)
Soft Oatmeal Cookies (p.121)
1 cup raisins and 1/2 cup water. Cook until hot.
Simmer 10-105 minutes. In a bowl add the following and cream well:
1 Cup brown sugar
1 cup shorting (margarine is ok)
1/2 tsp. salt
Add: 2 eggs, beaten well
Mix in: 2 cups flour
Add: 1/2 cup nuts, chopped
1/2 cup coconut
2 cups oatmeal
1 tsp vanilla
Drain the raisins, save the liquid and measure 5 T. raisin liquid. If there is not enough juice, add water to make 5 T. Dissolve 1 tsp. baking soda in the juice. Add the cookie batter and stir in the raisins last. Drop by tsp. on greased cookie sheet. Bake at 350 degrees, 12 to 15 minutes.
1 beaten egg
2 cups molasses
3/4 cup melted shorting
1 cup warm milk
2 T. baking soda; dissolve in 2 T. warm water
5 Cups flour
2 tsp. cinnamon
1.5 tsp cloves
1/2 tsp. salt
2 tsp. ginger
Add ingredients in above order, mixing thoroughly after each addition. Be sure to stir in the flour (sifted with other dry ingredients) a little at a time. Drop on greased baking sheet with a teaspoon and bake at 375 degrees untill lightly browned.
1/2 cup shortening
1 cup sugar
3 T. cocoa
1/2 cup flour
1 tsp. vanilla
1/2 cup chopped nuts
Mix well, put in a greased 9×9 cake pan. Bake at 350 Degrees for 20 to 25 minutes. Frost when cool.
Serviceman Special Candy
2 cups sugar
1 tsp. vanilla
1 cup cream
1 T. butter
1 cup nuts
1.5 squares bittersweet chocolate
3 cups graham cracker crumbs
Combine sugar, cream, butter, chocolate and vanilla. Cook to soft ball stage. Remove from fire and stir in remaining ingredients. Spoon into buttered pan. Press firm and cut into squares.
Victory Muffins (p.85)
2 T. shortening
3/4 cup milk
1 Cup All-Bran
1 cup sifted flour
2 1/2 tsb. baking powder
1/2 tsb. salt
DIRECTIONS: Beat shortening and egg together until well blended. Add All-Bran and milk and let stand for at least 20 minutes. (This may be done in the evening, adding dry ingredients in the morning.) Sift flour, baking powder and salt together. Add to the first mixture, stirring only until liquid and dry ingredients are combined. Fill greased muffin pans 2/3 full. Bake in preheated 400 degree oven. For small muffins, bake 25minutes; for large muffins, bake 30 minutes. Makes 12 small or 8 large muffins.
Raisin Honey Sandwiches (p.162)
1 cup raisins, chopped
1/8 tsb. salt
1 T. mayonnaise or salad dressing
1/4 cup nuts, chopped
1 1/3 T. lemon juice
3 T honey
DIRECTIONS: Combine ingredients. Mix thoroughly. Use as filling between thin buttered slices of either brown or white bread.
2 cups boiling water
1 to 3 cups lemon juice
1 cup sugar
1 T. rum extract
2 cups cold strong tea
1 large bottle ginger ale
1 cup orange juice
Boil water and sugar for 5 minutes. After it has cooled, add orange juice, lemon juice, extract and tea. Add ginger ale and ice and serve.
Halloween Cider Punch
2 cups pineapple juice
1 cup lemon juice
1 Cup orange juice
2 Quarts cider
2 cups strong tea
2 quarts ginger ale
Mix fruit juices and orange and lemon rind, cut into pieces. Add cider and tea and put in large punch bowl. Just before serving, add ginger ale and ice. Serves 65-70. Sugar syrup may be added.
V Loaf (p.63)
2 cups cooked rice
1/2 cup fine dry bread crumbs
1/2 cup chopped nut meats
1 cup cooked tomatoes
1/2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. black pepper
2 T. green pepper chopped
4 t. melted butter or margarine
1 small onion, chopped
DIRECTIONS: Mix all together to form loaf. Bake in greased loaf pan in 350 degree oven for 30 minutes. Cover with mashed potatoes, put back in oven to brown. Serve with tomato sauce. This recipe defies detection as a substitute meat loaf and is very good.
Mr. John Burger (p. 24)
1 pound hamburger
1/2 tsp horseradish mustard
Small onion, chopped
Salt and pepper to taste
DIRECTIONS: Mix well and spread on bread slices. Makes about 9 slices. Broil until brown–about 9 minutes.
Red Cross POW Packages
” In the beginning of the war commercial firms put together these packages. Later on, the Red Cross volunteers took over [. . .] [t]hey assembled monthly packages for French, Polish and other allied prisoners [. . .] [a]long with the food packages, clothing, shoes comfort articles and medical supplies were also sent” (79 Edson).
The packages measured “10 inches square and 4.5 inches deep and weighed exactly 11 pounds, as prescribed by the German postal regulations. Red Cross nutrition experts had put together a list of items determined as most effectively supplementing prison camp diet. The boxes contained a variety of items that may have included:
A five ounce box of raisins; a half-pound of American cheese; one pound can of powdered milk; 12 ounces of corned beef from Argentina; a 6 ounce can of ‘Brunch’ (Pork Luncheon Meat) which consisted of chopped pork, salt, water, sugar and sodium nitrate; a 2 ounce can of coffee; a 7 ounce can of tuna fish; a half-pound box of sugar cubes; a 6 ounce box of army K2 biscuits; four bars of guest size toilet soap; one pound can of oleomargarine; four Hershey chocolate bars; and a can of pate (Liver Paste) which was a mixture of milk, chopped pork livers, pork fat, onions, oats, soy, grits, whole wheat, yeast, defatted wheat germ, and hydrolyzed plant protein.
The Red Cross also sent seeds and tools, along with cookbooks to prison of war camps, where prisoners were sometimes allowed to cultivate vegetable gardens.
Many times a word from home did more good then anything. The ‘Red Cross News.’ a publication containing favorite comics, news items, sports news, and special articles was distributed to the prisoners of war on a regular basis” (79).
WW2 American Red Cross Recipes Source Edson, Laurie J., “American Red Cross 50th Anniversary World War Two Cookbook.” Cedar Falls, IA, Woolverton Publishing Company. 1993. Amazon link here
These are a series of pamphlets produced several times a month throughout the war for soldiers. The pamphlets contained articles, combat tips, proclamations, maps, drawings, cartoons, news, updates and other general information.
Some links download from this site while other links go to my dropbox account. If DropBox gives you errors or cannot connect, please try clearing your browser’s cache, cookies and disable any third party-plugins (such as adblocker or Privacy Badger) as they may interfere with the ability of DropBox to render the pdfs. Special thanks to the 90th ID for making some of these available.
The Rank and file in combat, What they are doing, How they are doing it. The suggestions in Combat Lessons are drawn from the experience of the World War II American Soldier in both Europe and the Pacific.