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Digital Storage

  1. Read the following link and identify at least two problems with digital storage:An Interview With Two Scientists On the Problem of Digital Storage
  2. Then read this link and answer the following questions:

Scientists Solve The Digital Storage Problem

A. How are scientists proposing to solve the problems with digital storage?

B. Why is this process better?

C. Explain how the storing of the data works (How are they encoding the information?)

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Lesson Plans World History II SOL 10b Treaty of Versailles

Lesson Plans World History II SOL 10b: Treaty of Versailles 

Standard WH II: The student will demonstrate knowledge of the worldwide impact of World War I by

Objectives: explaining the outcomes and global effect of the war and the Treaty of Versailles.

Lesson Plans
Introduction: A Bell-ringer activity
Notes: Students copy-down and discuss teacher generated notes
Activities: Students complete various in class activities to support learning including video analysis, maps, charts, diagrams, graphic organizers, worksheets, text-book questions, group discussion, KWL Charts etc.
Assessment: Informal, Formal, Exit-Questions, Teacher Questioning, Quizzes, Tests, Projects

Essential Knowledge:

Major leaders

  • Woodrow Wilson
  • Kaiser Wilhelm II

Outcomes and global effect

• Colonies’ participation in the war, which increased demands for independence
• End of the Russian Imperial, Ottoman, German, and Austro-Hungarian empires
• Enormous cost of the war in lives, property, and social disruption

Treaty of Versailles

  • Forced Germany to accept responsibility for war and loss of territory and to pay reparation
  • Limited the German military
  • League of Nations

Activities That Support Lesson Plans

 Treaty of Versailles Simulation: Students are divided into groups that represent players at the peace conference. Students role play as diplomats and work out a peace based on their national interests. I normally assign each student to a country. Once in groups students select their roles and then they receive their countries packets which contain character sheets, option sheets, and answer sheets. Once nations have selected their options they go to other countries to try to get support. After the diplomat stage, we discuss and the class votes which option to go with.

Treaty of Versailles Simulation Directions  : Directions, roles, and rules on how to organize the simulation
Treaty of Versailles Teacher Intro Sheet  : Teacher introduction sheet
Treaty of Versailles Character Sheet 1  : Character sheet for the United States
Treaty of Versailles Character Sheets 2-6: Character sheets for Italy, Germany, France, Austro-Hungary, and Overseas Colonies. While not all these characters were at the conference or stayed until the end, I needed enough teams so all my students can take part.
Treaty of Versailles-Option and Answer Sheet : Countries use the option sheet to select a choice and record their answer on their answer sheet.

Europe Treaty of Versailles Comparison Map :Students compare and analysis a pre-ww1 map of Europe to a post-ww1 map.

Click here to return to the Virginia World History II SOL Page


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Oxford Record Label

1906 El Capitan March. 7in. disc. Probably made by Columbia

Oxford Record Label (1906-1916)

The Oxford Record Label was a Sears label that came after Sears’ discontinuation of their Harvard Label. They are single sided and can be found as either a 7in. disc or a 10in. disc.  At the start, Sears used Leeds and Catlin from 1906-1908 to produce the record, switched to Columbia from 1908-1909, then to Victor (using their Zon-o-phone masters) between 1909-1911, and then back to Columbia between 1911-1916. Indeed, Columbia continued to produce for Sears under the Oxford label a 7in. disc while Victor produced a 10in. disc. Recordings are mostly anonymous For an excellent review of the Oxford label see the sources below.

Music Genres: Waltz, Black or “Coon” music, Orchestra, Marches, Operettas.

Pre World War II Label: Purple with Oxford in a scripted styled.

1906 El Capitan March. 7in. disc. Probably made by Columbia
1906 El Capitan March by Soussa. 7in. disc. Probably made by Columbia.

1908 Negro Laughing Song. Probably made by Victor using Zonophone masters.
1908 Negro Laughing Song by George W. Johnson. Probably made by Victor using Zonophone masters.

While not an Oxford Label it is an example of the Negro Laughing Song by George W. Johnson who was the first African-American to sing on a record.

Leg of Mutton Oxford Record label 36773
Leg of Mutton Le Gigot. 12in. Oxford Record Label #36773. Probably made by Columbia in early 1910s.

 Leg of Mutton Le Gigot, 1913.

Numbers to 1945: Columbia will switch to a new label called Silvertone in 1915/1916.

1-1000 (by Columbia, Zonophone)1000-2000 (by Columbia, Zonophone)
3000 – 5000 (by Columbia)        5000 (by Zonophone)



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Montgomery Ward Records

Montgomery Ward Records (1933-1941)

Sold through Montgomery Ward’s catalog. Contracted pressing of records and licensing to Decca, RCA, Columbia, Victor, Bluebird and others. These records could be found in their stores or in their catalogs.

Music Genres: Country, Pop, Blues, Western, Mexican, Swing.

1933-1941: Record Label

Record Label: Pre-WW2. Black or dark blue coloring always with gold. Note the design of semi-circles.
Montgomery Ward Record Label: Pre-WW2. Black or dark blue coloring always with gold. Note the design of semi-circles.

Produced in 1934
Montgomery Ward Record:  Produced in 1934

Cartwright Brothers on Montgomery Ward.

1941-1945s Label: None

Post WW2 Label: None

Numbers from start to 1945: 1000-10173

Notes: 6000 is their light classical series.


Catalog Listing:

Rust, Brian. The American Record Label Book. Arlington House Publishers, NY. 1978.

Sutton, Nauck. American Record Labels and Companies: An Encyclopedia (1891-1943).Mainspring Press, CO.2000.

Music Genres: Country, Pop, Blues, Western, Mexican, Swing

Back to 78 Record Project Series

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Posts Not Displaying in WordPress Reader


Posts Not Displaying in WordPress Reader

Purpose: This post explains how to troubleshoot solutions when your post does not display in the WordPress reader.
Audience: Beginner to Advanced

Continue reading Posts Not Displaying in WordPress Reader

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da Vinici’s Resume

da Vinici’s Resume

Resume as seen here

“My Most Illustrious Lord,

Having now sufficiently seen and considered the achievements of all those who count themselves masters and artificers of instruments of war, and having noted that the invention and performance of the said instruments is in no way different from that in common usage, I shall endeavour, while intending no discredit to anyone else, to make myself understood to Your Excellency for the purpose of unfolding to you my secrets, and thereafter offering them at your complete disposal, and when the time is right bringing into effective operation all those things which are in part briefly listed below:

  1. I have plans for very light, strong and easily portable bridges with which to pursue and, on some occasions, flee the enemy, and others, sturdy and indestructible either by fire or in battle, easy and convenient to lift and place in position. Also means of burning and destroying those of the enemy.
  2. I know how, in the course of the siege of a terrain, to remove water from the moats and how to make an infinite number of bridges, mantlets and scaling ladders and other instruments necessary to such an enterprise.

  3. Also, if one cannot, when besieging a terrain, proceed by bombardment either because of the height of the glacis or the strength of its situation and location, I have methods for destroying every fortress or other stranglehold unless it has been founded upon a rock or so forth.

  4. I have also types of cannon, most convenient and easily portable, with which to hurl small stones almost like a hail-storm; and the smoke from the cannon will instil a great fear in the enemy on account of the grave damage and confusion.

  5. Also, I have means of arriving at a designated spot through mines and secret winding passages constructed completely without noise, even if it should be necessary to pass underneath moats or any river.

  6. Also, I will make covered vehicles, safe and unassailable, which will penetrate the enemy and their artillery, and there is no host of armed men so great that they would not break through it. And behind these the infantry will be able to follow, quite uninjured and unimpeded.

  7. Also, should the need arise, I will make cannon, mortar and light ordnance of very beautiful and functional design that are quite out of the ordinary.

  8. Where the use of cannon is impracticable, I will assemble catapults, mangonels, trebuckets and other instruments of wonderful efficiency not in general use. In short, as the variety of circumstances dictate, I will make an infinite number of items for attack and defence.

  9. And should a sea battle be occasioned, I have examples of many instruments which are highly suitable either in attack or defence, and craft which will resist the fire of all the heaviest cannon and powder and smoke.

  10. In time of peace I believe I can give as complete satisfaction as any other in the field of architecture, and the construction of both public and private buildings, and in conducting water from one place to another.

Also I can execute sculpture in marble, bronze and clay. Likewise in painting, I can do everything possible as well as any other, whosoever he may be.

Moreover, work could be undertaken on the bronze horse which will be to the immortal glory and eternal honour of the auspicious memory of His Lordship your father, and of the illustrious house of Sforza.

And if any of the above-mentioned things seem impossible or impracticable to anyone, I am most readily disposed to demonstrate them in your park or in whatsoever place shall please Your Excellency, to whom I commend myself with all possible humility.”