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WW2 American Red Cross Recipes

WW2 American Red Cross Recipes

WW2 American Red Cross Recipes

A selection of WW2 American Red Cross Recipes for the World War Two Reenactor.

“Red Cross records indicate the organization purchased enough flour between 1939 and 1946 to make 1.6 billion doughnuts. Red Cross women were serving doughnuts at the rate of 400 per minute during the years 1944-1946

Red Cross Doughnuts

1.5 cups of sifted flour
1/4 tsp. baking soda
1/4 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. butter or substitute, melted
1/4 tsp. ginger
1/4 cup molasses
1/4 cup sour milk (buttermilk)
1 egg, well beaten

Combine half of the flour with the soda, salt and ginger. Combine egg, molasses, sour milk, and melted butter or substitute. Blend with flour mixture and stir until thoroughly mixed and smooth. Add remaining flour to make dough of sufficient body to be rolled. Roll on floured board, to thickness of 1/4inch. Cut with doughnut cutter. Fry in deep hot fat (360 degrees) until lightly browned, about 2 to 3 minutes. Drain on brown paper.”

Christmas Packages

Shipping the WW2 American Red Cross Recipes such as in a package required following special guidelines.

“Anyone hoping to send a package overseas was advised to mail early–anytime from Sept 15 through Oct 15. The post office listed a series of guide lines for those mailing packages

‘…The weight limit is 5 pounds. Parcels may not be more than 15inches in length and 36inches in length and girth combined.’ ” Later on, a gift container was manufactured (sorry no picture) it measured 10 by 6 by 4 inches. (119)

“We searched for small compact items that packed well and could survive being shipped thousands of miles. We collected stationary, pencils, air mail stamps, paperback books, Western and detective magazines, canned foods, candy bars, chewing gum, fruit flavored powdered drinks, dried packaged fruit such as raisins, dates and prunes, hometown newspapers, Readers Digests, playing cards, heavy socks, and of course snap shots of home folks were especially welcome” (120)

“Packing Cookies took special care. Even though cookies were wrapped and rewrapped in layers of shredded waxed paper or tissue, and then tucked inside tin boxes, they still often arrived in bits and pieces. Not many complained, though. Instead they shared the contents of their Christmas boxes with buddies not so fortunate” (121)

Soft Oatmeal Cookies (p.121)

1 cup raisins and 1/2 cup water. Cook until hot.

Simmer 10-105 minutes. In a bowl add the following and cream well:

1 Cup brown sugar

1 cup shorting (margarine is ok)

1/2 tsp. salt

Add: 2 eggs, beaten well

Mix in: 2 cups flour

Add: 1/2 cup nuts, chopped

1/2 cup coconut

2 cups oatmeal

1 tsp vanilla

Drain the raisins, save the liquid and measure 5 T. raisin liquid. If there is not enough juice, add water to make 5 T. Dissolve 1 tsp. baking soda in the juice. Add the cookie batter and stir in the raisins last. Drop by tsp. on greased cookie sheet. Bake at 350 degrees, 12 to 15 minutes.

Wartime Cookies

1 beaten egg

2 cups molasses

3/4 cup melted shorting

1 cup warm milk

2 T. baking soda; dissolve in 2 T. warm water

5 Cups flour

2 tsp. cinnamon

1.5 tsp cloves

1/2 tsp. salt

2 tsp. ginger

Add ingredients in above order, mixing thoroughly after each addition. Be sure to stir in the flour (sifted with other dry ingredients) a little at a time. Drop on greased baking sheet with a teaspoon and bake at 375 degrees untill lightly browned.

Brownies

1/2 cup shortening

1 cup sugar

2 eggs

3 T. cocoa

1/2 cup flour

1 tsp. vanilla

1/2 cup chopped nuts

Mix well, put in a greased 9×9 cake pan. Bake at 350 Degrees for 20 to 25 minutes. Frost when cool.

Serviceman Special Candy

2 cups sugar

1 tsp. vanilla

1 cup cream

1lb marshmallows

1 T. butter

1 cup nuts

1.5 squares bittersweet chocolate

3 cups graham cracker crumbs

Combine sugar, cream, butter, chocolate and vanilla. Cook to soft ball stage. Remove from fire and stir in remaining ingredients. Spoon into buttered pan. Press firm and cut into squares.

Victory Muffins (p.85)

2 T. shortening

1 egg

3/4 cup milk

1 Cup All-Bran

1 cup sifted flour

2 1/2 tsb. baking powder

1/2 tsb. salt

DIRECTIONS: Beat shortening and egg together until well blended. Add All-Bran and milk and let stand for at least 20 minutes. (This may be done in the evening, adding dry ingredients in the morning.) Sift flour, baking powder and salt together. Add to the first mixture, stirring only until liquid and dry ingredients are combined. Fill greased muffin pans 2/3 full. Bake in preheated 400 degree oven. For small muffins, bake 25minutes; for large muffins, bake 30 minutes. Makes 12 small or 8 large muffins.

Raisin Honey Sandwiches (p.162)

1 cup raisins, chopped

1/8 tsb. salt

1 T. mayonnaise or salad dressing

1/4 cup nuts, chopped

1 1/3 T. lemon juice

3 T honey

DIRECTIONS: Combine ingredients. Mix thoroughly. Use as filling between thin buttered slices of either brown or white bread.

Military Punch

2 cups boiling water

1 to 3 cups lemon juice

1 cup sugar

1 T. rum extract

2 cups cold strong tea

1 large bottle ginger ale

1 cup orange juice

Ice

Boil water and sugar for 5 minutes. After it has cooled, add orange juice, lemon juice, extract and tea. Add ginger ale and ice and serve.

Halloween Cider Punch

2 cups pineapple juice

1 cup lemon juice

1 Cup orange juice

Lemon rind

Ice

2 Quarts cider

2 cups strong tea

2 quarts ginger ale

Orange rind

Mix fruit juices and orange and lemon rind, cut into pieces. Add cider and tea and put in large punch bowl. Just before serving, add ginger ale and ice. Serves 65-70. Sugar syrup may be added.

V Loaf (p.63)

2 cups cooked rice

1/2 cup fine dry bread crumbs

1/2 cup chopped nut meats

1 cup cooked tomatoes

1 egg

1/2 tsp. salt

1/8 tsp. black pepper

2 T. green pepper chopped

4 t. melted butter or margarine

1 small onion, chopped

DIRECTIONS: Mix all together to form loaf. Bake in greased loaf pan in 350 degree oven for 30 minutes. Cover with mashed potatoes, put back in oven to brown. Serve with tomato sauce. This recipe defies detection as a substitute meat loaf and is very good.

Mr. John Burger (p. 24)

1 pound hamburger

1/2 tsp horseradish mustard

1 egg

Small onion, chopped

Salt and pepper to taste

DIRECTIONS: Mix well and spread on bread slices. Makes about 9 slices. Broil until brown–about 9 minutes.

Red Cross POW Packages

” In the beginning of the war commercial firms put together these packages. Later on, the Red Cross volunteers took over [. . .] [t]hey assembled monthly packages for French, Polish and other allied prisoners [. . .] [a]long with the food packages, clothing, shoes comfort articles and medical supplies were also sent” (79 Edson).

The packages measured “10 inches square and 4.5 inches deep and weighed exactly 11 pounds, as prescribed by the German postal regulations. Red Cross nutrition experts had put together a list of items determined as most effectively supplementing prison camp diet. The boxes contained a variety of items that may have included:

A five ounce box of raisins; a half-pound of American cheese; one pound can of powdered milk; 12 ounces of corned beef from Argentina; a 6 ounce can of ‘Brunch’ (Pork Luncheon Meat) which consisted of chopped pork, salt, water, sugar and sodium nitrate; a 2 ounce can of coffee; a 7 ounce can of tuna fish; a half-pound box of sugar cubes; a 6 ounce box of army K2 biscuits; four bars of guest size toilet soap; one pound can of oleomargarine; four Hershey chocolate bars; and a can of pate (Liver Paste) which was a mixture of milk, chopped pork livers, pork fat, onions, oats, soy, grits, whole wheat, yeast, defatted wheat germ, and hydrolyzed plant protein.

red-cross-recipes-and-parcel

Red Cross Parcels Wikipedia Link

The Red Cross also sent seeds and tools, along with cookbooks to prison of war camps, where prisoners were sometimes allowed to cultivate vegetable gardens.

Many times a word from home did more good then anything. The ‘Red Cross News.’ a publication containing favorite comics, news items, sports news, and special articles was distributed to the prisoners of war on a regular basis” (79).

WW2 American Red Cross Recipes Source
Edson, Laurie J., “American Red Cross 50th Anniversary World War Two Cookbook.” Cedar Falls, IA, Woolverton Publishing Company. 1993. Amazon link here

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Cameras for the World War II Reenactor

Cameras for the World War II Reenactor

This article was written by a friend of mine Corey Hodgson, reprinted as permitted. If you have any specific questions you may contact him: [email protected], with the subject line “GI camera guide”. You may also download a copy of this article in a pdf format here.

The following guide is an attempt to inform WWII reenactors, portraying typical US soldier in Europe. While the guide can be used for those portraying infantry and Marines in various other parts of the global conflict, be sure to research what cameras would be available to a soldier (for example: a Leica or other German made cameras would be next to impossible to obtain for a Marine on Tarawa).

This guide is not meant to be a guide for those wishing to portray a War Correspondent or a member of the United States Signal Corps. While some did choose to use 35mm and 120mm cameras (Like Robert Capa, who chose to use Leica, Contax, and Rollei branded cameras throughout his time in the Mediterranean and European Theater of Operations), the primary choice for the Signal Corps was the trusted Graflex Anniversary Speed Graphic, with its massive 4×5 negative. Please research your specific impression before purchasing any cameras, as you can easily spend a great deal on something you cannot (or rather should not) use.

Cameras we obtained in three major ways: Gifted to the soldier, purchased by the soldier, and stolen by the soldier.

Rollei

A twin lens reflex is a camera that has two lenses, stacked one above the other, that allows the user to focus using the top one, and expose a 6x6cm negative on 120mm film. The Rollei has, and still is, a rather expensive camera. The build quality is above average, being created for professionals, most lasting longer than the original owners themselves. Robert Capa was known to use a Rolleiflex “Old Standard” (made before 1939) during his WWII travels.

Appropriate for use would be the Rolleiflex Original, Standard, New Standard, Baby 4×4 (all pre-war models made from 1931-1943) Automat Model 1, and Automat Model 2. Also appropriate would be the cheaper entry level Rolleicord, any models manufactured between 1933 and 1949 (The Models Ia Type 3 and IIc were both manufactured through the war and continued for a few years after the war).

A word of warning though, the average GI attempted to reduce weight as often as possible, and a Rollei TLR is not the smallest or lightest camera available. Therefore I highly recommend that you avoid taking this camera in the field, instead using it as a “pre-invasion” camp camera. These cameras would have also been very expensive, costing far more than the average GI could afford.

A cheaper alternative would be the Ciroflex Model A, manufactured in Detroit, Michigan prior to the war and then in Delaware, Ohio during the war. Only the Model A was made during the war. Also available would be the Primarflex I made in Germany prior to the war.

For more information on Rolleiflex cameras and models:
http://camerapedia.wikia.com/wiki/Rolleiflex
For more information on Rolleicord cameras and models:
http://camerapedia.wikia.com/wiki/Rolleicord

Original (New and Old Standard made between 1932-1941) Rolleiflex cameras look like this:

Rolleiflex Camera
Rolleiflex Camera

While Rolleiflex Automats (Models 1 and 2 made between 1937 – 1945) look like this:

Rolleiflex Automats
Rolleiflex Automats

Leica

Just as it is today, the Leica brand was one that was known world wide for quality and an enormous price tag. There are two types of Leica cameras to look at: With a Rangefinder and without a Rangefinder.

Unlike today’s cameras, which allow you see what you shoot before you shoot it, a rangefinder shows the photographer only what will be in focus. A rangefinder splits the image and when the photographer makes the two images overlap perfectly (creating one image on the item you wish to focus on), the focus is set and the picture can be taken. Without a rangefinder, the photographer has to either know or guess the distance between the camera and the subject.

Leica cameras load from the bottom, and I would highly suggest you do independent reading on cutting and loading film for any Leica or Leica copy (the Soviet made Zorki and FED cameras) as the film leader must be cut to load film into vintage Leicas.

Acceptable models for use are Leica I, Ic, IIc, IIIa, IIIb, and IIIc. Avoid all gold versions, or ones marked with Luftwaffe markings (and other Nazi markings on the top). 9 out of 10 times, these cameras are going to be fakes and while they might be mechanically sound – they usually aren’t due to them being bastardized Soviet copies (A Soviet Copy of a German camera, made to look like a German camera).

Leica cameras are relatively expensive, and again, the average GI would not have ordinary access to any of the cameras – unless they stole them or found them.

Soviet models, that would be acceptable for just playing around with, include any of the FED 1’s (not the 2, 3, 4 or 5!) and the Zorki 1 and 2.

For more information on Leica Cameras:
http://camerapedia.wikia.com/wiki/Leica For More Information on Soviet Leica copies:

http://fedka.com/Frames/Main_Frame.htm

A typical Leica I:

Leica I
Leica I

A typical Leica IIIc:

Leica IIIc
Leica IIIc

Argus

Made in Ann Arbor, Michigan, the Argus A and Argus C3 popularized the 35mm format in the United States. These cameras were relatively inexpensive for consumers to purchase, and were very common.
The cameras take 35mm film, are built like bricks (the C3 was, and still is, affectionately named “The Brick”), and are very durable. These would be more common amongst the average Joe. For more information on the Argus: http://camerapedia.wikia.com/wiki/Argus

Typical Argus A:

Argus A
Argus A

Typical Argus C3:

Argus C3
Argus C3

Kodak

Kodak produced many inexpensive cameras, made to encourage everyone to enjoy photography (and purchase the film that Kodak produced). Cameras were manufactured in two primary locations: The Rochester, New York factory, and the Kodak AG factory in Stuttgart Germany.

Acceptable Models: Kodak 35, Kodak 35 RF (not very common due to the $48 USD pricetag – $700 USD in 2007), PH 324 (Very rare and not suggested because of that. Due to the US government’s contract with Kodak, the PH 324 cameras were collected and bulldozed as to not flood the commercial market), Retina I (Types 117, 118, 119, 126, 141, 143, 148, 149, 167), and Retina II (Types 122 and 142).
Retina cameras were made by Kodak AG in Germany, and after 1941, the production ceased for the remainder of the Second World War.

For More information on the Kodak Retina I: http://camerapedia.wikia.com/wiki/Kodak_Retina_(folding)
For more information on the Kodak Retina II:
http://camerapedia.wikia.com/wiki/Kodak_Retina_II
For More information on the Kodak 35:
http://camerapedia.wikia.com/wiki/Kodak_35
For more information on the Kodak 35RF:
http://camerapedia.wikia.com/wiki/Kodak_35_RF

Typical Kodak Retina I Type 126:

Kodak Retina I Type 126
Kodak Retina I Type 126

Typical Kodak 35:

Kodak 35
Kodak 35

Typical Kodak 35 RF:

Kodak 35 RF
Kodak 35 RF

Typical Kodak Retina II Type 122:

Kodak Retina II Type 122
Kodak Retina II Type 122

Contax

On the success of Leica, another German company (Zeiss Ikon) created the Contax I to compete with Leica. These high-end models were known for their wonderful focusing abilities, a removable back for loading film, a quick and reliable brass shutter, and a new bayonet mount lens system (as opposed to Leica’s screw mount lens system).

There are three acceptable models for the time period: The Contax I, II and III. The III has a selenium light meter on the top to calculate exposures with. While this feature was revolutionary at the cameras creation in 1936, today this feature is at best, barely accurate. It is best to use a different form of metering for your exposures, as over time the selenium cells have grown to be less accurate than at their creation. After the war, Contax began production in West Germany of the Contax IIa and IIIa. These cameras are also acceptable for use as they are hard to distinguish between the pre-war models (the rangefinder window is smaller, but these cameras are still recommended over the Soviet Copies).

These cameras would not be common amongst the average GI, instead being common in the hands of professional photojournalists like Robert Capa.

There are Soviet copies of the Contax II & III, as the Soviets had taken the machinery from the factory and brought them back home as war spoils – in fact, the Soviets brought back not only the machinery used to make the Contax cameras, but they brought back ALL the parts the remained. This actually resulted in the first batch of Kiev II cameras having the Contax logo on the inside – with the Soviet KIEV printed on the front. Models that are suggested are the Kiev II and the Kiev III. The Kiev 4 features a different appearance and it is generally not suggested you purchase one for reenacting. The author has used the Kiev II in reenacting previously, and while the camera performed well, the KIEV print on the front stood out rather well. Soviet copies should be avoided if you are looking for a 100% authentic impression.

For more information on Contax Cameras:
http://camerapedia.wikia.com/wiki/Contax_rangefinder
For information on Soviet Copies:
http://camerapedia.wikia.com/wiki/Kiev_rangefinder

Typical Contax I:

Contax I
Contax I

Typical Contax II:

Contax II
Contax II

Typical Contax III:

Contax III
Contax III

Zeiss Ikon

In Germany the two major producers of optics and camera equipment were Zeiss and Leica. Zeiss Ikon was the product of four major German camera companies in 1926. Known for innovation, quality, and for their excellent medium format cameras, Zeiss Ikon cameras were fairly common – in the authors view they were along the lines of Kodak in America.

Zeiss Ikon produced many 120mm folders, including the Nettar, Ikonta, and Super Ikonta (an Ikonta folder with a coupled rangefinder). Acceptable models for the use by reenactors include the Nettel, Super Nettel I & II, Nettax, Nettar (510, 510/2, 515, 515/2 and 515/16), Ikonta (A, B, and C models that begin with 520 or 521), and Super Ikonta (A, B, and C). For specific information on the many models, please do research on Camerapedia or on Pacific Rim Camera.

For more information on Zeis Ikon:
http://camerapedia.wikia.com/wiki/Zeiss-Ikon
For More information on Ikonta and Super Ikonta cameras:
http://www.pacificrimcamera.com/pp/zeiss/sikonta/sikonta.htm http://www.pacificrimcamera.com/pp/zeiss/ikonta/ikonta.htm

Typical Super Ikonta B 530-16:

Super Ikonta B 530-16
Super Ikonta B 530-16

Typical Ikonta 520 Series:

Ikonta 520 Series
Ikonta 520 Series

Typical Super Ikonta A 530:

Super Ikonta A 530
Super Ikonta A 530

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