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Depression and Carnival Glass for the World War Two Reenactor

Notes on Depression and Carnival Glass for the World War Two Reenactor

Cut Glass (1880-mid 1910s)

Is produced by hand-cutting glass. Cut glass used to contain heavy amounts of lead and to get the right designs glass-makers would add crystal or “flint” to it. Cut glass is used primarily for tableware and come in many styles. Most glassware was signed with the name of the producer, etched into the glass. Reproductions of cut-glass tend to have signatures embossed.

Carnival Glass (1900s-1930)

Carnival Glass is pressed glassware produced in the 1900s-1930. The glass came in many colors including brights (like red, green, blue, purple etc.) and pastel colors (like clear, white, smoke, lavender, and opalescent). The pastel colors have less of a finish. Red is the most highly collectable color as it required fair amounts of gold oxides to produce it. Marigold is the most widely available color. When the depression hit and glass styles changed producers of carnival glass gave it away to…carnivals as prizes.

It was sprayed with a metallic finish that made it look oily in nature. Five companies produced the majority of it in the US.
1. Fenton Art Glass Co. of Williamstown WV
2. Imperial Glass Corporation of Bellaire, OH
3. Millersburg Glass Company of Millersburg, OH
4. Northwood Glass Company of Wheeling, WV
5. Dugan Glass Company of Indiana, PA

Depression Glass (1920s-1930s extending to 1970s):

Cheaply produced colored glassware as automation and industrialization finally caught-up to glassmaking. This glassware was marketed for middle-income and working-class Americans. This glassware came with purchases from stores or mail-order catalogs. Glassware was of any kind including bowls, shakers, dishes (all kinds), creamers, sugars, vases, jars, pitchers, measuring cups etc. Pink is the most common glass color, followed by Green and Amber. The rarer Depression glass colors are red, black, colbalt blue, and yellow. The rarest types of Depression Glass are the ones that incorporate glass bases for citrus juices (reamers).

Fiestaware (1936 to 1970)

Fiestaware is brightly colored pottery. It was produced from 1936 to 1973. It was re-started in 1986. Collectors seek the original colors: Red, Yellow, Cobalt, Light-Green, Ivory, Turquoise. Fiesta Red was pulled from the market in 1943 as it used uranium to help create its color and the uranium was needed for the war effort. Chartreuse(gray and rose colored) was added as a color scheme in the 1950s and earthy tones arrived by the 1970s. The rarest color is medium -green.

Glass Companies

Cambridge Glass Company of Cambridge, OH: Produced glass from the early 1900s-1950s. Focused mostly on crystal or cut glass. Can find designs of stars, swirls, squares etc. Produced mostly bowls, plates, tumblers, and cocktail glasses. Most collectable of Cambridge Glass are the Square Series produced shortly before it went out of businesses. Would eventually be bought by Imperial Glass.

Imperial Glass: This company began reproducing Carnival glass in the 1960s using some of the original molds, however the difference between period-correct carnival glass and Imperial Glass Reproductions is that the new glass is marked IG at the bottom.

Fenton Glass: Produced Carnival and then Depression glass. Before 1970 most Fenton glass had a sticker. If no sticker look for an absence of the pontil mark (typically seen as a dimple, chipped-looking section, or lumpy bump that indicates the punty rod was detached from the glass as it was cooling). Fenton Glass used a different kind punty rod that left clean breaks. After 1970, Fenton glass will mark the piece of an “F” or “Fenton” somewhere on the item
See: http://www.ehow.com/how_7330459_authenticate-fenton-glass.html
http://entertainmentguide.local.com/detect-fake-fenton-glassware-8067.html

Heisey Glass (1860s-1957): Produced Art Glass, Cut-Glass and Carnival Glass. Symbol is an “H” inside a diamond.

Libbey Glass: Produced all kinds of glassware but not much of Carnival or Depression. Glass marked with the word “Libbey”

Westmoreland Glass (1890-1985): Produced some carnival and depression but mainly milk glass. Early Westermoreland marks were a “W” within what appears to be an upside-down lampshade. The intertwined “W” and “G” was not developed until 1949. In 1983, all Westmoreland glass was marked “Westmoreland.”

Others include:

Anchor-Hocking and Fire King:
Jeannette Glass Company
Liberty Works
MacBeth-Evans Glass Compnay
US Glass Company
Hazel Atlas Company
Indiana Glass Company
Fostoria Glass Company
Federal Glass Company
Paden City Glass Company
McKee Glass Company
New Martinsville
L.E. Smith Company
Lancaster Glass Company
US Company (?)
Belmont Tumbler Company
Dell Glass
Diamond Glass-ware Company
Homer-Laughlin China Company-Fiesta Ware

Sources:
-Florence, Gene.1999. The Pocket Guide to Depression Glass and More: 1920s-1960s. 11th Ed. Collector Books.
-Good source that puts pictures with the different pattern types.
Pickvet, Mark. 1996. Collecting Glassware. Alliance Publishers.
-General overview of glass history, glass styles, glass companies.

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Zippos in World War Two

Zippo is in the War

Zippos in World War Two for Reenactors

Below are some scanned copies and information related to Zippos in World War two for the reenactors.

The two pdfs below outline a general progression of Zippo from 1932 to 1950, including the famed black crackle zippo of the World War Two Era.

pg 47_Zippo timeline Part 1

pg 48_Zippo Timeline Part 2

The following pdfs show a specific progression of Zippo lighters from 1933 to early 1941.

pg 55: From 1933 to 1934

pg 56: From 1935 to 1941

pg 89: From 1940 to 1941

Zippo also had wartime ads to promote Zippos

pg 140 Zippo WW2 Ads

pg 170 zippo ad

Here is the message Zippo had which announced the change to the black crackle

pg 178 WW2 Zippo metal change

The next pdf shows a specific progression from 1941 to the early 1950s.

pg 57: From 1943 to 1953

In the 1990s, there as a market for nostalgia and Zippo manufactured Zippos in the same style of the 1930s and 1940s

pg 82_1933 Replica

The final pdf shows the change in packaging throughout the years

pg 187 Zippo package changes

Below are some specific details and analysis of the Zippo from 1932 to 1954

Intro

pg 17

1932 Model

pg 18

pg 19

1933 Model

pg 20

pg 21

Mid 1933 and 1935 Model

pg 22

1936 Outside Hinge Model

pg 23

1936 to 1939 Models

pg 24

pg 25

pg 26

pg 27

1940 to 1941 Models no-diagonals

pg 28

pg 29

pg 30

1940 to 1941 Models diagonals

pg 31

pg 32

pg 33

pg 34

1941 Steel Case and 1942 Black Crackle

pg 35

pg 36

1943-1945 Black Crackle

pg 76

1948-1954

pg 77

Accessories

pg 141: Flint Dispensers

pg 142: Lighter Fluid Bottles

pg 143: Wick Displays

Source

Zippo: The Great American Lighter by David Poore 1997 Schiffer Publishing Ltd.

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Radios for World War Two Reenactments

Voting in World War Two

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WW2 Red Cross Reproduction Knitting Patterns

Below is a listing of WW2 Red Cross Reproduction Knitting Patterns for WW2 Reenactors

AfghanChild’s Knitted SuitChild’s Sweater Brooks TypeChild’s Sweater Toddler Pack
GlovesMan’s Coat SweaterMan’s SocksMan’s V-Neck Sweater, Sleeveless
MufflerNavy Iceland SweaterWatch CapWoman’s V-Neck Cardigan

Practical, Warm Hand Knits for Service Men WW2 Red Cross Knitting Patterns

This another red cross knitting pattern. The booklet is Volume 318, dated 1940. Below are some images from the booklet and external links which explain more about the patterns.

External Links

Read Me First: WWII Knitting FAQ

WWII Plain SocksWWII Hats and HelmetsWWII Mittens and GlovesWWII V-Neck Sweater
WWII TurtleneckWWII Sweater VestWWII Ear Muffs, Wristlets, Knee Caps, Muffler

My mom and her Service Men and Women

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WW2 Reproduction Currency

Below is a listing of WW2 reproduction currency of Russia, The Netherlands, France, Germany, Italy, and Japan. The files are all .pdf and may be printed off and used at reenactments.

Some WW2 reproduction currency files below have two files, a front and a back. They are designed to be printed on either a two-sided copier or printed once and then fed back into the printer the opposite direction so the sides line up.

Others have only a single side. These were also designed to be flipped and fed back into the printer.

WW2 Reproduction Currency

Germany

ReichspfenningReichspfennnig – 5Reichspfennig – 10
Reichsmark – FrontReichsmark – BackReichsmarks – 50 – FrontReichsmarks – 50 – Back
Mark – SmallMark – MediumMark – 10 – FrontMark – 10 – Back
Newmark – 10 – FrontNewmark – 10 – BackNewmark – 20 – FrontNewmark – 20 – Back
Newmark – 50 – FrontNewmark – 50 – BackNewmark – 100 – FrontNewmark – 100 – Back

The Netherlands

Guilders – Small – FrontGuilders – Small – BackGuilders – Large – FrontGuilders – Large – Back

France

Franc – SmallFranc – Large – FrontFranc – Large – Back

Russia

Rubels – FrontRubels – BackLenin

Italy

Lire – SmallLire – Large – FrontLire – Large – Back

Japan

Yen – SmallYen – 510 – FrontYen – 510 – Back
Yen – Large – FrontYen – Large – Back
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WW2 American Red Cross Recipes

WW2 American Red Cross Recipes

WW2 American Red Cross Recipes

A selection of WW2 American Red Cross Recipes for the World War Two Reenactor.

“Red Cross records indicate the organization purchased enough flour between 1939 and 1946 to make 1.6 billion doughnuts. Red Cross women were serving doughnuts at the rate of 400 per minute during the years 1944-1946

Red Cross Doughnuts

1.5 cups of sifted flour
1/4 tsp. baking soda
1/4 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. butter or substitute, melted
1/4 tsp. ginger
1/4 cup molasses
1/4 cup sour milk (buttermilk)
1 egg, well beaten

Combine half of the flour with the soda, salt and ginger. Combine egg, molasses, sour milk, and melted butter or substitute. Blend with flour mixture and stir until thoroughly mixed and smooth. Add remaining flour to make dough of sufficient body to be rolled. Roll on floured board, to thickness of 1/4inch. Cut with doughnut cutter. Fry in deep hot fat (360 degrees) until lightly browned, about 2 to 3 minutes. Drain on brown paper.”

Christmas Packages

Shipping the WW2 American Red Cross Recipes such as in a package required following special guidelines.

“Anyone hoping to send a package overseas was advised to mail early–anytime from Sept 15 through Oct 15. The post office listed a series of guide lines for those mailing packages

‘…The weight limit is 5 pounds. Parcels may not be more than 15inches in length and 36inches in length and girth combined.’ ” Later on, a gift container was manufactured (sorry no picture) it measured 10 by 6 by 4 inches. (119)

“We searched for small compact items that packed well and could survive being shipped thousands of miles. We collected stationary, pencils, air mail stamps, paperback books, Western and detective magazines, canned foods, candy bars, chewing gum, fruit flavored powdered drinks, dried packaged fruit such as raisins, dates and prunes, hometown newspapers, Readers Digests, playing cards, heavy socks, and of course snap shots of home folks were especially welcome” (120)

“Packing Cookies took special care. Even though cookies were wrapped and rewrapped in layers of shredded waxed paper or tissue, and then tucked inside tin boxes, they still often arrived in bits and pieces. Not many complained, though. Instead they shared the contents of their Christmas boxes with buddies not so fortunate” (121)

Soft Oatmeal Cookies (p.121)

1 cup raisins and 1/2 cup water. Cook until hot.

Simmer 10-105 minutes. In a bowl add the following and cream well:

1 Cup brown sugar

1 cup shorting (margarine is ok)

1/2 tsp. salt

Add: 2 eggs, beaten well

Mix in: 2 cups flour

Add: 1/2 cup nuts, chopped

1/2 cup coconut

2 cups oatmeal

1 tsp vanilla

Drain the raisins, save the liquid and measure 5 T. raisin liquid. If there is not enough juice, add water to make 5 T. Dissolve 1 tsp. baking soda in the juice. Add the cookie batter and stir in the raisins last. Drop by tsp. on greased cookie sheet. Bake at 350 degrees, 12 to 15 minutes.

Wartime Cookies

1 beaten egg

2 cups molasses

3/4 cup melted shorting

1 cup warm milk

2 T. baking soda; dissolve in 2 T. warm water

5 Cups flour

2 tsp. cinnamon

1.5 tsp cloves

1/2 tsp. salt

2 tsp. ginger

Add ingredients in above order, mixing thoroughly after each addition. Be sure to stir in the flour (sifted with other dry ingredients) a little at a time. Drop on greased baking sheet with a teaspoon and bake at 375 degrees untill lightly browned.

Brownies

1/2 cup shortening

1 cup sugar

2 eggs

3 T. cocoa

1/2 cup flour

1 tsp. vanilla

1/2 cup chopped nuts

Mix well, put in a greased 9×9 cake pan. Bake at 350 Degrees for 20 to 25 minutes. Frost when cool.

Serviceman Special Candy

2 cups sugar

1 tsp. vanilla

1 cup cream

1lb marshmallows

1 T. butter

1 cup nuts

1.5 squares bittersweet chocolate

3 cups graham cracker crumbs

Combine sugar, cream, butter, chocolate and vanilla. Cook to soft ball stage. Remove from fire and stir in remaining ingredients. Spoon into buttered pan. Press firm and cut into squares.

Victory Muffins (p.85)

2 T. shortening

1 egg

3/4 cup milk

1 Cup All-Bran

1 cup sifted flour

2 1/2 tsb. baking powder

1/2 tsb. salt

DIRECTIONS: Beat shortening and egg together until well blended. Add All-Bran and milk and let stand for at least 20 minutes. (This may be done in the evening, adding dry ingredients in the morning.) Sift flour, baking powder and salt together. Add to the first mixture, stirring only until liquid and dry ingredients are combined. Fill greased muffin pans 2/3 full. Bake in preheated 400 degree oven. For small muffins, bake 25minutes; for large muffins, bake 30 minutes. Makes 12 small or 8 large muffins.

Raisin Honey Sandwiches (p.162)

1 cup raisins, chopped

1/8 tsb. salt

1 T. mayonnaise or salad dressing

1/4 cup nuts, chopped

1 1/3 T. lemon juice

3 T honey

DIRECTIONS: Combine ingredients. Mix thoroughly. Use as filling between thin buttered slices of either brown or white bread.

Military Punch

2 cups boiling water

1 to 3 cups lemon juice

1 cup sugar

1 T. rum extract

2 cups cold strong tea

1 large bottle ginger ale

1 cup orange juice

Ice

Boil water and sugar for 5 minutes. After it has cooled, add orange juice, lemon juice, extract and tea. Add ginger ale and ice and serve.

Halloween Cider Punch

2 cups pineapple juice

1 cup lemon juice

1 Cup orange juice

Lemon rind

Ice

2 Quarts cider

2 cups strong tea

2 quarts ginger ale

Orange rind

Mix fruit juices and orange and lemon rind, cut into pieces. Add cider and tea and put in large punch bowl. Just before serving, add ginger ale and ice. Serves 65-70. Sugar syrup may be added.

V Loaf (p.63)

2 cups cooked rice

1/2 cup fine dry bread crumbs

1/2 cup chopped nut meats

1 cup cooked tomatoes

1 egg

1/2 tsp. salt

1/8 tsp. black pepper

2 T. green pepper chopped

4 t. melted butter or margarine

1 small onion, chopped

DIRECTIONS: Mix all together to form loaf. Bake in greased loaf pan in 350 degree oven for 30 minutes. Cover with mashed potatoes, put back in oven to brown. Serve with tomato sauce. This recipe defies detection as a substitute meat loaf and is very good.

Mr. John Burger (p. 24)

1 pound hamburger

1/2 tsp horseradish mustard

1 egg

Small onion, chopped

Salt and pepper to taste

DIRECTIONS: Mix well and spread on bread slices. Makes about 9 slices. Broil until brown–about 9 minutes.

Red Cross POW Packages

” In the beginning of the war commercial firms put together these packages. Later on, the Red Cross volunteers took over [. . .] [t]hey assembled monthly packages for French, Polish and other allied prisoners [. . .] [a]long with the food packages, clothing, shoes comfort articles and medical supplies were also sent” (79 Edson).

The packages measured “10 inches square and 4.5 inches deep and weighed exactly 11 pounds, as prescribed by the German postal regulations. Red Cross nutrition experts had put together a list of items determined as most effectively supplementing prison camp diet. The boxes contained a variety of items that may have included:

A five ounce box of raisins; a half-pound of American cheese; one pound can of powdered milk; 12 ounces of corned beef from Argentina; a 6 ounce can of ‘Brunch’ (Pork Luncheon Meat) which consisted of chopped pork, salt, water, sugar and sodium nitrate; a 2 ounce can of coffee; a 7 ounce can of tuna fish; a half-pound box of sugar cubes; a 6 ounce box of army K2 biscuits; four bars of guest size toilet soap; one pound can of oleomargarine; four Hershey chocolate bars; and a can of pate (Liver Paste) which was a mixture of milk, chopped pork livers, pork fat, onions, oats, soy, grits, whole wheat, yeast, defatted wheat germ, and hydrolyzed plant protein.

red-cross-recipes-and-parcel

Red Cross Parcels Wikipedia Link

The Red Cross also sent seeds and tools, along with cookbooks to prison of war camps, where prisoners were sometimes allowed to cultivate vegetable gardens.

Many times a word from home did more good then anything. The ‘Red Cross News.’ a publication containing favorite comics, news items, sports news, and special articles was distributed to the prisoners of war on a regular basis” (79).

WW2 American Red Cross Recipes Source
Edson, Laurie J., “American Red Cross 50th Anniversary World War Two Cookbook.” Cedar Falls, IA, Woolverton Publishing Company. 1993. Amazon link here

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12 Years a Slave Video Lesson Plans and Worksheets

12 Years a Slave Video Lesson Plans and Worksheets

While I never had an opportunity to test out 12 Years a Slave Video Lesson Plans and Worksheets I would have liked to have shown the film either at the end of the year or as part a discussion on slavery (either as part of a World History or US course).

The New York Times learning Blog has a good outline of the lesson involved in it. You can find it here: 12 Years a Slave Lesson Plans and Worksheets from NTY Learning Blog

I have also put the lesson into a single document that students can use:
12 Years a Slave Lesson Plans and Worksheets

Teachers may also be interested in having students compare the two excerpts listed in the document using the resources below:
Close Reading

Comparing Texts

Document Analysis

If copies of the book may be found it may be worth it to have students read a chapter out of the book. This guide includes questions for each chapter along with enrichment activities (both for the book and the film)12 Years A Slave Reading Questions

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John Stossel Lesson Plans and Worksheets

John Stossel Lesson Plans and Worksheets

John Stossel Lesson Plans and Worksheets

I would often use John Stossel Lesson Plans and Worksheets in my government class as he highlights different aspects of government and highlights what the role of the government in society and economy should or should not be. These came as videos on a DVD but now can be found in YouTube or his site below.

You can find and order his videos off his website here: http://stosselintheclassroom.org/

I’ve also included some of his video guides below.

John Stossel Teacher Guide 2012

John Stossel Tacher Guide 2011

John Stossel Teacher Guide 2009

John Stossel Teacher Guide 2008

John Stossel Teacher Guide 2007

John Stossel Teacher Guide Best of

One of my favorite videos was Greed. Particularly, when discussing the role of the economy.

John Stossel Greed Lesson Plan

The video comes in 6 parts below. I’ve added it as a playlist on YouTube

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AP Psychology Lesson Plans and Worksheets

AP Psychology Lesson Plans and Worksheets

While I never had an opportunity to teach the AP Psychology Lesson Plans and Worksheets (though I did receive training before we moved out of state), I thought it might be nice for other AP teachers to take advantage of the guides provided. Documents are either pdf or doc/docx.

Teacher’s Guide for AP PsychAP Psychology Teachers Guide

Google Site: AP Psych File Cabinet: Includes lessons, PowerPoints, docs, articles, pdfs for 15 different units. Includes test-prep review materials: The AP Psych File Cabinet

40 Studies: A book that covers the 40 most important studies for Psychology. Includes student worksheets and questions

40 Studies Book

40 Studies Summary

40 Studies that Changed Psych Worksheet

40 Studies Student Question Sheet

Old AP Tests used for practice exams
2008 AP Psych MC Exam and Key

2007 AP Psych MC Exam and Key

2004 AP Psych MC Exam and Key

1994 AP Psych MC Exam and Key

1996 AP Pysch MC Exam and Key

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Archeology Lesson Plans

archeology-lesson-plans

Archeology Lesson Plans

While I never had an opportunity to conduct a unit of Archeology Lesson Plans or a stimulated dig, I did have some notes and worksheets related to it. I figured this would be a 3-5 day unit.

Day 1: Archeology Lesson Plans
Discussion of what Archeology is and isnt
Why it is important
What skills or knowledge is needed
Learn about scientific method/forming hypothesis and how it may apply to Archeology
Maybe have students do a reading on a famous archeologist (or provide short snippets/bios from famous ones). Probably want to select a diverse group (male, female, minority, etc). Then discuss and share it.
Possible career research to being an Archeologist?

Day 2: Archeology Lesson Plans
Discussion of techniques (probably pick 5 techniques that are the most common)
What to do/What not to do
Maybe a video showing the techniques
Students then practice techniques
Students then critique each other

Day 3: Archeology Lesson Plans
Prep 5-10 different archeology topics: Mayans, Aztec, Roman, Greek, Indian, China, 1800s, 1900s, Egyptian, Viking, etc. Pick a variety of topics and have students research the life of a commoner and rich person.
Students should focus on
Food, clothing, physical objects, religious symbols, etc,
Students should complete some sort of chart that gives facts/info on different aspects of a common/rich persons life in each of the above topics
You may need to prep this on the internet and have students visit a website to learn more about daily life

Day 4:Archeology Lesson Plans
Continue research

Day 5-6:Archeology Lesson Plans
Simulated Dig
Depending how you want to organize students may select a box or students may be randomly assigned a box.
Students then use the techniques they learned about to analyze a shoebox and dig it.
Students complete a recording sheet where they describe what they found, where they found, the number of the object, and the measurements of the object.

There are several ways to present the dig. You could do the shoebox and put sand and objects in it. You could buy large tots or bins and fill it with sand and then put objects in it to make it a larger area. You could dig into the school yard property and place items. Obviously, if you have more classes it will take much longer to prep all the “digs”.

You would obviously need to purchase items related to the different topics/cultures. Items that students could find in a dig such as bones, skulls, jewelry, clothing etc. may be purchased cheap around halloween/dollar store. Shoe boxes can be gotten from a shoe store (ask the manager), trowels, measuring tape (probably a fabric one) and other digging items may be purchased from Lowes/Home Depot, the dollar store, Goodwill etc.

Day 7-8:  Archeology Lesson Plans
Students create a report on what they found and their hypothesis of the culture/kind of person.
Students present findings
Teacher shares answers

Day 9-10: Archeology Lesson Plans
Students watch a hollywood film and compare and contrast real-life Archeology to how it is portrayed on the screen. Students complete a worksheet on the film and then compare and contrast.

Here is an outline of some sources that I found to be helpful in sketching out my Archeology Lesson Plan idea.

Archeology Lesson Plan Outline
Basic Stimulated Dig
Shoe Box Dig
Schoolyard Dig
Sample Recording Sheet
What students need to know briefing
Layer Cake Archaeology